learning about back (a, ı, o, u) and front (e, i, ö, ü) vowels in Turkish and applying the vowel harmony rule to high-frequency words
matching root words to suffixes to apply the rule of vowel harmony and to learn about exceptions to the rule in relation to loan and compound words and to some Turkish words, such as bugün,kardeş and kalem, which have changed their original forms
learning the pronunciation and spelling of high-frequency words with yumuşak g (soft g) ğ, as in yağmur and ağaç, understanding that this sound is never used at the beginning of words
learning that Turkish syllables only have one vowel, and that apart from loan words, they never have vowel sequences; applying this understanding through activities such as creating words by matching different prefixes and suffixes
understanding spelling patterns, the spacing rule and the application of vowel harmony to question endings such as alır mısın? alıyor musun?
understanding the use of an apostrophe for separating proper nouns from their inflectional suffixes, as in Tarık’ın and İstanbul’da, Avustralya’nın
learning about the devoicing and doubling of final consonants, as in kitap – kitabı, kanat–kanadı, sokak-sokağa and git-gittim,sır-sırrım