The nature of the learners
Students coming into this pathway are background learners of Hindi with varying degrees of proficiency in the language. All have family and community connections with the language and associated cultures, or with languages or dialects related to Hindi. Some may have recently arrived in Australia, have completed the primary years of schooling in Hindi or other Indian...
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The nature of the learners
Students coming into this pathway are background learners of Hindi with varying degrees of proficiency in the language. All have family and community connections with the language and associated cultures, or with languages or dialects related to Hindi. Some may have recently arrived in Australia, have completed the primary years of schooling in Hindi or other Indian languages and have established literacy as well as oracy skills in the language. Others may have participated in community language programs during these years and have some literacy capabilities in Hindi. Others may have minimal experience of formal learning of the language, with little literacy proficiency and varying degrees of oral capabilities, depending on their home language environment. All students share the experience of belonging to worlds in which languages play a key role and diversity of language use is common. The curriculum takes into account the diversity of learners, ensuring that tasks and activities are flexible to cater for different language capabilities while being appropriately pitched to all learners’ cognitive and social levels.
Hindi language learning and use
Students use Hindi to interact with each other, the teacher and other speakers of the language, to access and exchange information, to express ideas and feelings, to participate and to cooperate in learning experiences and activities. They build vocabulary resources, grammatical knowledge and communicative capabilities such as active listening skills and interactional strategies through shared tasks that provide a context for purposeful language experience and through focused learning episodes that develop understanding of language systems and the ability to use metalanguage. They use modelled and rehearsed language to compose and present different types of texts (for example, shared stories, media and hypermedia texts, songs, poems, reports or journal entries). They plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts, design interactive events and participate in discussions. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources with each other and with learners in different contexts.
Contexts of interaction
Students interact primarily with each other and the teacher in class, with some access to broader Hindi-speaking networks in the school and local community. ICT resources such as email, online chats or wikis provide access to additional experiences of authentic communication, connecting learners’ social worlds with those of Hindi-speaking peers in other contexts. Learners also have access to Hindi language experience through media, community events, websites, social media and radio streaming.
Texts and resources
Learners work with a range of texts designed for in-school learning of Hindi, such as textbooks, readers, literary texts, videos, online media resources and materials. They also access materials created for Hind-speaking communities, such as songs, films, magazines and social media texts such as blogs, advertisements and websites. They interact with a range of texts created for different purposes (for example, informational, transactional, communicative, expressive and imaginative texts) and make connections between these genres in Hindi and the work they do around similar texts in the English learning area.
Features of Hindi language use
Learners develop explicit knowledge of the forms and functions of language elements that they may already use fluently in their spoken language. Literacy development provides the opportunity not only to read and write the language but also to understand how it is formed and how it works. Learners learn how spoken language is represented in the Devanagari script by the use of 13 characters classified as vowels (अ-अः) and 35 as consonants (क-ह and ड़-ढ़) and that a line on the top joins letters to make words and leave spaces between words बस, घर। अब घर चल।. They recognise the matra form of vowels, such as ि, ी, distinguish long and short vowel sounds such as ि, ी and identify the pronunciation of vowel sounds in conjunction with consonants, कइ/कि, कई/की. They develop understanding of key features and core elements of grammar, including sentence structures, the form and function of pronouns, मैं, हम, यह, ये, तुम, तू, आप, मैं, मेरा, तुम्हारा।, the use of postpositions and gender and number agreements, लड़का गाता है। लड़की गाती है। लड़के गाते हैं. They compose statements and questions, such as तुम मेरे साथ चलो। तुम कैसे हो and use simple verb tenses such as गया था, जाऊँगा, जा रहा हूँ, खाया था, खा रहा हूँ, खाऊँगा. They position adverbs correctly in sentences, for example, धीरे-धीरे, जल्दी में, दौड़ते हुए and use negative forms of verbs and adjectives, for example, सोहन ने फिल्म नहीं देखी। झूठ कभी मत बोलो. They increase their range of vocabulary to domains beyond their personal experience and interests, and recognise loan words from languages such as English, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Portuguese. They learn how the under-dotted characters क़, ख़, ग़, ज़, फ़ are used to represent loan sounds in Hindi. Learners use and analyse grammatical forms and sentence structures that express relationships between ideas, experiences and relationships, and develop awareness of how language structures shape textual features. They use descriptive and expressive language to create particular effects and to engage interest. They develop language knowledge, processing strategies and understanding of text conventions to assist in comprehending unfamiliar texts. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine how people, issues and experiences are represented. They are aware of the nature of the relationship between languages and cultures, noticing, for example, how particular Hindi words or expressions ‘carry’ cultural values or experiences. They reflect on the nature of bicultural and multicultural experience, on how languages change in response to broader social and cultural shifts, and how they perceive their own identities as users of two or more languages in a multicultural society.
Level of support
Differentiated support is required for learners with different levels of oracy and literacy proficiency. All learners require opportunities to review and consolidate learning; different degrees of balance between consolidation work and provision of more challenging tasks ensure learners at different levels are catered for. Teachers provide scaffolding, modelling and material and resource support for the development of fluency and accuracy in spoken language and of grammatical and literacy capabilities. Learners are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in different communicative contexts. They are encouraged to engage critically with resources such as websites, translating tools and other resources designed to strengthen their receptive and productive language use.
The role of English
Learners are encouraged to use Hindi whenever possible, including for discussion, explanation, comparison and reflection. English is used when appropriate, for example, when considering the nature and relationship of language and culture or in tasks that involve comparison and analysis of Hindi and English. The process of moving between/using both languages consolidates learners’ already established sense of what it means to be bilingual or multilingual and provides opportunities for reflection on the experience of living inter-culturally in intersecting language communities.
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Interact with peers and teacher to exchange greetings, wishes, information and opinions, to talk about their personal worlds and to express feelings
[Key concepts: self, family, leisure, preferences; Key processes: interacting, exchanging information, describing]
Participate in shared activities such as performances, celebrations, presentations or website design that involve planning, collaborating, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating
[Key concepts: interaction, collaboration, negotiation; Key processes: planning, negotiating, responding]
Interact in classroom routines and exchanges such as asking and responding to questions, requesting help, repetition or permission, following directions, giving praise or encouragement and reflecting on learning experiences
[Key concepts: conversation, discussion, comparison, meaning; Key processes: discussing, responding, comparing, reflecting]
Access and identify specific points of information such as details about people, places or events from a range of spoken, written and digital texts and use the information in new ways
[Key concepts: social worlds, environment, communication, lifestyle; Key processes: researching, recording, reporting]
Convey information obtained from different sources relating to personal, social and natural worlds in spoken, written and multimodal forms suitable for a particular audience
[Key concepts: community, experience, bilingualism; Key processes: selecting, presenting, creating]
Engage with imaginative and creative texts such as stories, cartoons, paintings, poems, songs and TV programs, comparing favourite elements and discussing structure, characters, themes and effects
[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, imagery, representation; Key processes: responding, comparing, analysing, discussing; Key text types: poetry, folk tales, TV programs, films, music]
Create original texts that involve imagination and expression, experimenting with a range of modes and performance genres
[Key concepts: expression, imagination, adaptation, performance; Key processes: experimenting, adapting, designing, performing; Key text types: stories, plays, music]
Translate and interpret short texts such as public signs, proverbs or menus from Hindi to English and vice versa, noticing which words or phrases translate easily and which do not
[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning, translation, interpretation; Key processes: translating, explaining, evaluating]
Create shared bilingual texts and learning resources such as word banks, databases, promotional materials or hyperlinks for digital presentations for the classroom and wider school or local community
[Key concepts; expression, meaning, elaboration; Key processes: creating, reviewing, exemplifying, designing]
Consider similarities and differences in their ways of communicating in Hindi or English, or when switching between the two, noticing when they choose to use either or both languages
[Key concepts: language domains, culture, expression; Key processes: comparing, identifying, monitoring, analysing]
Discuss the nature of identity and of cultural experience, considering the relationship between the two
[Key concepts: identity, multiculturalism, code-switching; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, comparing]
Understand the relationship between the sounds of spoken Hindi and elements of the Devanagari script, such as the writing of conjunct characters and the combinations of consonants and matras
[Key concepts: pronunciation, intonation, writing conventions; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising]
Develop knowledge of key elements of the Hindi grammatical and vocabulary systems, such as sentence structures, use of pronouns, postpositions and gender and number agreements
[Key concepts: grammar, sentence structure; Key processes: understanding, applying]
Identify textual and grammatical features that characterise different types of literary, instructional, persuasive or imaginative texts in Hindi, comparing them with similar texts in English and other languages
[Key concepts: genre, language features, metalanguage; Key processes: noticing, analysing, comparing]
Understand that both spoken and written Hindi vary in form and function when used by different people in different contexts and situations
[Key concepts: variation, context, register; Key processes: noticing, comparing, explaining]
Recognise that the Hindi language has evolved and developed through different periods of time and as a result of different influences and interactions, that it is related to many other languages used in India and in the Australian community, and that it has influenced/influences other languages
[Key concepts: language change, language contact, loan words, globalisation; Key processes: discussing, classifying]
Recognise that Australia is a multicultural society with communities of speakers of many different languages including Hindi, and reflect on the diversity of language practices that characterise members of this multicultural community
[Key concepts: multilingualism, dialect; Key processes: understanding, mapping, reflecting]
Understand the relationship between language and culture, reflecting on how languages reflect values, belief systems and perspectives that may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages
[Key concepts: culture, language, meaning, interdependence; Key processes: analysing, identifying, making connections]
By the end of Year 8, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information and opinions about their personal worlds, for example, मेरे परिवार के अधिकतर सदस्य ऑस्ट्रेलिया में रहते हैं लेकिन कुछ सदस्य भारत में भी रहते हैं। मुझे क्रिकेट खेलना अच्छा लगता है क्योंकि...... They exchange greetings and wishes, for example, दीपावली की हार्दिक शुभकामनाएँ, ईद मुबारक , परीक्षा में सफल होने के लिए बधाई and use descriptive and expressive language to share feelings, for example,उँगली पर नचाना, नाक में दम करना,मेरी चाचीजी मुझसे बहुत प्यार करती हैं ,मैं उनकी आँखों का तारा हूँ । हरे भरे खेत हवा के झोंकों के संग लहलहा रहे थे। पेड़ों के पत्तो में से सूरज की किरणें छन छन कर आ रही थीं। अपने घर में कुत्ता भी शेर होता है. Students use action-related and rehearsed language to engage in shared activities that involve planning, collaborating, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating, for example, इसके लिए संगीत की व्यवस्था कौन करेगा? किन चित्रों का उपयोग होगा इसका निर्णय हम कैसे करेंगे? यदि तुम तबला बजाओगे तो मैं गाऊँगी. They interact in classroom routines and exchanges by following instructions, asking and responding to questions, for example, आज २० जून है, आज सोमवार है,...
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By the end of Year 8, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information and opinions about their personal worlds, for example, मेरे परिवार के अधिकतर सदस्य ऑस्ट्रेलिया में रहते हैं लेकिन कुछ सदस्य भारत में भी रहते हैं। मुझे क्रिकेट खेलना अच्छा लगता है क्योंकि...... They exchange greetings and wishes, for example, दीपावली की हार्दिक शुभकामनाएँ, ईद मुबारक , परीक्षा में सफल होने के लिए बधाई and use descriptive and expressive language to share feelings, for example,उँगली पर नचाना, नाक में दम करना,मेरी चाचीजी मुझसे बहुत प्यार करती हैं ,मैं उनकी आँखों का तारा हूँ । हरे भरे खेत हवा के झोंकों के संग लहलहा रहे थे। पेड़ों के पत्तो में से सूरज की किरणें छन छन कर आ रही थीं। अपने घर में कुत्ता भी शेर होता है. Students use action-related and rehearsed language to engage in shared activities that involve planning, collaborating, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating, for example, इसके लिए संगीत की व्यवस्था कौन करेगा? किन चित्रों का उपयोग होगा इसका निर्णय हम कैसे करेंगे? यदि तुम तबला बजाओगे तो मैं गाऊँगी. They interact in classroom routines and exchanges by following instructions, asking and responding to questions, for example, आज २० जून है, आज सोमवार है, आज बहुत सर्दी है, requesting permission or clarification, for example, नहीं, मुझे समझ नहीं आया, कृपया फिर से दोहराइए l यह बहुत कठिन है । इसमें मुझे क्या करना है? इस प्रश्न का उत्तर क्या है? कृपया, यह फिर से समझाइये and responding to praise or criticism, for example, बहुत बढ़िया!. बुरा नहीं है। ठीकठाक! Students apply features of pronunciation and rhythm in spoken Hindi to a range of sentence types. They locate key points of information from a range of spoken, written and visual texts and communicate information and ideas related to personal, social and natural worlds using different modes of presentation. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by identifying and comparing favourite elements and discussing, characters, themes, effects and structure. Students use imaginative language to create original creative texts in different genres. They use key grammatical forms and structures in spoken and written texts, such as basic rules of word order, pronouns, for example, मैं, हम, तुम, ये, मैं, मेरा, तुम्हारा। यहाँ- वहाँ , यह-वह, postpositions, and gender and number agreement, for example, लड़का गाता है । लड़की गाती है। लड़के गातें हैं. Students compose simple statements and questions based on models such as तुम मेरे साथ चलो। तुम कैसे हो? They translate and interpret short texts from Hindi into English and vice versa, identifying words and expressions that do not readily translate, such as दूर के ढोल सुहावने, पेट में चूहे दौड़ रहे हैं. They create shared bilingual texts for the classroom, school and wider community. They identify differences and similarities in the way they interact in Hindi and English and describe the relationship between identity and cultural experience.
Students make connections between spoken and written Hindi and identify and apply the conventions of the Devanagari script, including elements such as the writing of conjunct characters, for example, क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ, consonant combinations, for example, क+इ = कि , क+ई=की and matras, for example, कु , कू . They identify the structure and textual and grammatical features of different personal, informative, persuasive and imaginative texts. They identify ways in which spoken and written Hindi vary according to context and situation. Students give examples of how Hindi has changed over time due to different influences and interactions and how it has in turn influenced other languages. They identify the diversity of language practices in multicultural communities and describe how languages reflect values, belief systems and perspectives.
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The nature of the learners
This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning are influenced...
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The nature of the learners
This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning are influenced by peer–group dynamics, personal interests and values, and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural communities continuously impacts on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process and is reflected in the degree to which learners self-define as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups, and the choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive and impact on learners’ engagement with both Hindi and English language learning and use.
Hindi language learning and use
This is a stage of language exploration and of vocabulary expansion. Learners experiment with different modes of communication, such as digital and hypermedia, performance and discussion. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in wider contexts. Learners use Hindi to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wide range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a developing degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.
Contexts of interaction
The language classroom is the main context of interaction for learning Hindi, involving interactions with peers, teachers and a wide range of texts and resources. Learners continue to interact with peers, family members and other Hindi speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Hindi-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They also encounter Hindi in wider contexts such as media, cultural or film festivals, community events or in-country travel.
Texts and resources
Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, media texts and online resources, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They engage with abridged versions of classic and contemporary Hindi literature and their film and TV adaptations. Learners may also access authentic materials designed for or generated by young Hindi speakers in a range of contexts, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper articles. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their learning and to share with others, and to pursue personal interests in aspects of Hindi language and associated cultures.
Features of Hindi language use
Learners consolidate their understanding of the conventions of written script, applying these to their own language production in increasingly complex ways. They recognise the role of prefixes and suffixes and how these change the meaning of words, जीव, सजीव, जीवंत, and they understand the impact on written script and vocabulary of tatsam words and tadbhav words. They increasingly control both regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, such as the influence of accents and expression on pronunciation and their impact on spelling, for example, the use of वो in spoken Hindi in place of वह in written script. Learners use more complex elements of Hindi grammar, such as the passive voice, compound words and variations in register. They understand the function and use of case, for example, ने, को, से, के लिए, में, पर,and use a range of tenses in complex sentences to describe events and personal experiences, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएंगे।.
Vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between activities which focus on language forms and structures and communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions become more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance. Elements of learning experiences involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Genres such as media resources, fiction and non-fiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance (for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity). Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they are shaped in turn by context and intention.
Learners at this level understand the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising them as involving cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on ways of thinking and behaving; how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in inter-culturally appropriate ways.
Level of support
At this level learners become less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions and learning experiences, but provision of rich language input and modelled language are needed to continue to support and sustain language learning. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in context, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to language structures, grammatical functions, abstract concepts and vocabulary knowledge. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and in developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback and contributing to peer support and self-review.
The role of English
Learners and teachers use Hindi as the primary medium of interaction in language-oriented and content-oriented learning experiences. English is used if appropriate for discussion, explanation or analysis that involves comparison between Hindi and English or concepts which may be better responded to in English. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Hindi play in their academic work and in their personal and community lives.
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Interact with peers and others in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to compare experiences and to express views on local and global issues, such as relationships, education and popular culture
[Key concepts: relationship, education, communication; Key processes: discussing, debating, responding, comparing]
Participate in individual and shared projects and activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiating and problem-solving
[Key concepts: action, transaction, negotiation, environment, community; Key processes: planning, transacting, brainstorming]
Participate in structured discussions, reflections and learning activities by managing contributions, asking and responding respectfully to questions, clarifying statements, elaborating opinions and expressing agreement or disagreement in culturally-appropriate ways
[Key concepts: debate, response, dialogue; Key processes: expressing, responding, evaluating, reflecting]
Organise information from different sources and in different modes of presentation for re-presentation in formats suitable for specific audiences and purposes
[Key concepts: information, perspective, representation, media; Key processes: researching, processing, evaluating, analysing]
Convey information on selected people, issues, places or interests, using appropriate modes of presentation to represent different perspectives and contexts
[Key concepts: argument, opinion, preference; Key processes: selecting, presenting, reporting]
Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary creative and literary texts, describing settings, identifying key themes, values and concepts, discussing representation of characters and events and the stylistic effects of different genres
[Key concepts: expression, themes, values, creativity; Key processes: comparing, analysing, responding; Key text types: stories, films, poetry, myths, cartoons]
Create individual and collaborative imaginative texts in a range of modes and formats to entertain, convey ideas, express emotions and explore the creativity of language
[Key concepts: cultural identity, stereotype, humour, emotion; Key processes: creating, performing, adapting; Key text types: poems, songs, sitcoms, cartoons]
Translate and interpret familiar social and community texts such as emails/text messages, informal conversations with friends or family, proverbs or quotations, considering the nature of translation and the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to another
[Key concepts: code-mixing, code-switching, translating, interpreting; Key processes: analysing, monitoring, explaining]
Compose bilingual texts such as digital stories, comics, blogs or contributions to websites that capture the experience of ‘living between languages’
[Key concepts: interculturality, multiculturalism, identity, fluidity; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, describing, comparing]
Reflect on their own language choices and communicative behaviour when using Hindi or English, including adjustments they make between languages and strategies they adopt to support intercultural communication
[Key concepts: interculturality, reflection, flexibility reciprocity; Key processes: reflecting, monitoring, comparing, discussing]
Reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity, and how this shapes and reflects ways of communicating and thinking
[Key concepts: affiliation, identity, communication; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, explaining]
Recognise regularities and irregularities of spoken Hindi and conventions of the written script, and apply these to their own language production in increasingly complex ways
[Key concepts: word building, pronunciation, accent; Key processes: recognising, applying]
Extend knowledge and use more complex features and patterns of the Hindi grammatical system, such as the use of passive voice, compound words and phrases and variations in register
[Key concepts: grammatical systems, tense, sentence structure, cohesion; Key processes: understanding, classifying, applying]
Know how to construct different types of texts to suit different contexts, purposes and audiences, incorporating appropriate cultural elements
[Key concepts: genre, context, mode, audience; Key processes: analysing, comparing, composing]
Identify variations in the use of Hindi that relate to social roles, contexts and modes of expression, considering similar variations in language use in English or other known languages
[Key concepts: register, respect, mode, non-verbal communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, comparing]
Understand that languages and associated cultures shape and are shaped by each other and change over time and contexts in ways that are creative, dynamic and responsive to both internal and external influences
[Key concepts: change, memory, history, culture; Key processes: tracking, reflecting, discussing]
Identify key features of multilingual experience, referencing their own individual and community language practices
[Key concepts: multilingualism, context, culture; Key processes: explaining, reflecting, analysing]
Understand that the Hindi language and associated cultures, like all languages and cultures, shape and are shaped by each other in ways that change over time and contexts, and that cultural experience, values and identities are reflected in language
[Key concepts: values, concepts, expression; Key processes: tracking, identifying, analysing]
By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Hindi in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to discuss and compare experiences and to express views on local and global issues, for example, पारिवारिक सम्बन्ध या सामाजिक मीडिया का उपयोग – डिजिटल दुनिया, मेरा समुदाय, श्रमिक दिवस, स्वतंत्रता दिवस, बैसाखी, भारत का शास्त्रीय संगीत, बॉलीवुड फिल्मों का इतिहास, ऑस्ट्रेलिया के दर्शनीय स्थल. They use action-related and spontaneous language to engage in shared activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiation and problem-solving, for example, म्रत्यु-दण्ड या इच्छा-म्रत्यु के बारे में विचार विनिमय, बाज़ार में खरीददारी, शरणार्थियों की समस्या पर परिचर्चा. They interact in classroom exchanges by asking and responding respectfully to questions. When participating in discussions and shared learning activities, students use elaborated sentences and interactional cues to support debate, provide clarification and maintain cohesion and focus of discussion, for example, तो, उदाहरण के लिए, तदनुसार, आम तौर पर, दूसरे शब्दों में, विशेष रूप से, इस प्रकार, इसलिये, आप इस विषय में क्या सोचते हैं? क्या आप इसे विस्तार में समझाने की कृपा करेँगे? तुम समझ रहे हो न मैं क्या कह रहा हूँ l...
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By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Hindi in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to discuss and compare experiences and to express views on local and global issues, for example, पारिवारिक सम्बन्ध या सामाजिक मीडिया का उपयोग – डिजिटल दुनिया, मेरा समुदाय, श्रमिक दिवस, स्वतंत्रता दिवस, बैसाखी, भारत का शास्त्रीय संगीत, बॉलीवुड फिल्मों का इतिहास, ऑस्ट्रेलिया के दर्शनीय स्थल. They use action-related and spontaneous language to engage in shared activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiation and problem-solving, for example, म्रत्यु-दण्ड या इच्छा-म्रत्यु के बारे में विचार विनिमय, बाज़ार में खरीददारी, शरणार्थियों की समस्या पर परिचर्चा. They interact in classroom exchanges by asking and responding respectfully to questions. When participating in discussions and shared learning activities, students use elaborated sentences and interactional cues to support debate, provide clarification and maintain cohesion and focus of discussion, for example, तो, उदाहरण के लिए, तदनुसार, आम तौर पर, दूसरे शब्दों में, विशेष रूप से, इस प्रकार, इसलिये, आप इस विषय में क्या सोचते हैं? क्या आप इसे विस्तार में समझाने की कृपा करेँगे? तुम समझ रहे हो न मैं क्या कह रहा हूँ l मेरी राय में…… मेरे कहने का अर्थ है... आपको नहीं लगता कि… मेरा सुझाव तो यही है कि .... They respond respectfully to different views, for example, मेरे विचार में…..ऐसा लगता है कि…; … हमें ध्यान रखना चाहिए… यह विवादास्पद है , लेकिन वास्तव में , मेरा विश्वास है…, मै आश्वस्त हूँ … and express agreement and disagreement in culturally appropriate ways. They apply appropriate pronunciation and intonation to spoken Hindi, identifying regularities and irregularities. They locate, process and analyse information obtained from different sources. They convey ideas and viewpoints from a range of perspectives using different text types and modes of presentation suited to context. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by identifying settings, themes and values, and discussing stylistic devices and the representation of characters and events. They produce imaginative texts using expressive, descriptive and evocative language in a range of modes and formats. When creating texts, students use complex features and patterns of the Hindi grammatical system such as passive voice, for example, रंगोली बनवायी जा रही है, छुट्टी करवाई जा रही है , compound words and phrases, and a variety of verb tenses, for example, पिछले वर्ष जैसे हमने होली का त्योहार मनाया था, उसी प्रकार इस वर्ष भी हम होली का त्योहार धूमधाम से मनाएँगे . They use vocabulary and expressions related to personal, social, environmental and global worlds, and apply appropriate writing conventions to increase text cohesion and enhance expression. Students translate and interpret familiar texts from Hindi into English and vice versa, explaining how cultural elements affect meaning. Students create bilingual texts that reflect the experience of being bilingual and bicultural. They explain their language choices and communicative behaviours in different intercultural interactions, and identify the adjustments they make according to context. They explain how language, culture and identity shape and reflect ways of communicating and thinking.
Students identify regular and irregular elements of spoken and written Hindi, and apply their understanding of the Hindi writing system to express complex information and ideas and enhance meaning. They analyse the relationship between language choices, cultural elements and textual features, and the audience, purpose and context of different spoken, written and multimodal texts. Students explain how spoken and written forms of Hindi vary according to social roles, contexts and modes of expression, and compare these variations to those in other languages. They explain the dynamic nature of language and give examples of how languages change over time and contexts. They identify key features of multilingual experience, with reference to their own and community language practices. They explain how languages and cultures shape and are shaped by each and how cultural experience, values and identities are reflected in language.
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