# Mathematics

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### Foundation Year

#### Foundation Year Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes connecting names, numerals and quantities
• fluency includes readily counting numbers in sequences, continuing patterns and comparing the lengths of objects
• problem-solving includes using materials to model authentic problems, sorting objects, using familiar counting sequences to solve unfamiliar problems and discussing the reasonableness of the answer
• reasoning includes explaining comparisons of quantities, creating patterns and explaining processes for indirect comparison of length.

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#### Foundation Year Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Establish understanding of the language and processes of counting by naming numbers in sequences, initially to and from 20, moving from  any starting point (ACMNA001)

Connect number names, numerals and quantities, including zero, initially up to 10 and then beyond (ACMNA002)

Subitise small collections of objects (ACMNA003)

Compare, order and make correspondences between collections, initially to 20, and explain reasoning (ACMNA289)

Represent practical situations to model addition and sharing (ACMNA004)

###### Patterns and algebra

Sort and classify familiar objects and explain the basis for these classifications. Copy, continue and create patterns with objects and drawings (ACMNA005)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Use direct and indirect comparisons to decide which is longer, heavier or holds more, and explain reasoning in everyday language (ACMMG006)

Compare and order duration of events using everyday language of time (ACMMG007)

Connect days of the week to familiar events and actions (ACMMG008)

###### Shape

Sort, describe and name familiar two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects in the environment (ACMMG009)

###### Location and transformation

Describe position and movement (ACMMG010)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Data representation and interpretation

Answer yes/no questions to collect information and make simple inferences (ACMSP011)

#### Foundation Year Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year, students make connections between number names, numerals and quantities up to 10. They compare objects using mass, length and capacity. Students connect events and the days of the week. They explain the order and duration of events. They use appropriate language to describe location.

Students count to and from 20 and order small collections. They group objects based on common characteristics and sort shapes and objects. Students answer simple questions to collect information and make simple inferences.

### Year 1

#### Year 1 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes connecting names, numerals and quantities, and partitioning numbers in various ways
• fluency includes readily counting number in sequences forwards and backwards, locating numbers on a line and naming the days of the week
• problem-solving includes using materials to model authentic problems, giving and receiving directions to unfamiliar places, using familiar counting sequences to solve unfamiliar problems and discussing the reasonableness of the answer
• reasoning includes explaining direct and indirect comparisons of length using uniform informal units, justifying representations of data and explaining patterns that have been created.

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#### Year 1 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Develop confidence with number sequences to and from 100 by ones from any starting point. Skip count by twos, fives and tens starting from zero (ACMNA012)

Recognise, model, read, write and order numbers to at least 100. Locate these numbers on a number line (ACMNA013)

Count collections to 100 by partitioning numbers using place value (ACMNA014)

Represent and solve simple addition and subtraction problems using a range of strategies including counting on, partitioning and rearranging parts (ACMNA015)

###### Fractions and decimals

Recognise and describe one-half as one of two equal parts of a whole. (ACMNA016)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Recognise, describe and order Australian coins according to their value (ACMNA017)

###### Patterns and algebra

Investigate and describe number patterns formed by skip-counting and patterns with objects (ACMNA018)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Measure and compare the lengths and capacities of pairs of objects using uniform informal units (ACMMG019)

Tell time to the half-hour (ACMMG020)

Describe duration using months, weeks, days and hours (ACMMG021)

###### Shape

Recognise and classify familiar two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects using obvious features (ACMMG022)

###### Location and transformation

Give and follow directions to familiar locations (ACMMG023)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Identify outcomes of familiar events involving chance and describe them using everyday language such as ‘will happen’, ‘won’t happen’ or ‘might happen’ (ACMSP024)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Choose simple questions and gather responses and make simple inferences (ACMSP262)

Represent data with objects and drawings where one object or drawing represents one data value. Describe the displays (ACMSP263)

#### Year 1 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 1, students describe number sequences resulting from skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. They identify representations of one half. They recognise Australian coins according to their value. Students explain time durations. They describe two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. Students describe data displays.

Students count to and from 100 and locate numbers on a number line. They carry out simple additions and subtractions using counting strategies. They partition numbers using place value. They continue simple patterns involving numbers and objects. Students order objects based on lengths and capacities using informal units. They tell time to the half-hour. They use the language of direction to move from place to place. Students classify outcomes of simple familiar events. They collect data by asking questions, draw simple data displays and make simple inferences.

### Year 2

#### Year 2 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes connecting number calculations with counting sequences, partitioning and combining numbers flexibly and identifying and describing the relationship between addition and subtraction and between multiplication and division
• fluency includes readily counting numbers in sequences, using informal units iteratively to compare measurements, using the language of chance to describe outcomes of familiar chance events and describing and comparing time durations
• problem-solving includes formulating problems from authentic situations, making models and using number sentences that represent problem situations, and matching transformations with their original shape
• reasoning includes using known facts to derive strategies for unfamiliar calculations, comparing and contrasting related models of operations and creating and interpreting simple representations of data.

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#### Year 2 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Investigate number sequences, initially those increasing and decreasing by twos, threes, fives and tens from any starting point, then moving to other sequences (ACMNA026)

Recognise, model, represent and order numbers to at least 1000 (ACMNA027)

Group, partition and rearrange collections up to 1000 in hundreds, tens and ones to facilitate more efficient counting (ACMNA028)

Explore the connection between addition and subtraction (ACMNA029)

Solve simple addition and subtraction problems using a range of efficient mental and written strategies (ACMNA030)

Recognise and represent multiplication as repeated addition, groups and arrays (ACMNA031)

Recognise and represent division as grouping into equal sets and solve simple problems using these representations (ACMNA032)

###### Fractions and decimals

Recognise and interpret common uses of halves, quarters and eighths of shapes and collections (ACMNA033)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Count and order small collections of Australian coins and notes according to their value (ACMNA034)

###### Patterns and algebra

Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing elements (ACMNA035)

Solve problems by using number sentences for addition or subtraction (ACMNA036)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Compare and order several shapes and objects based on length, area, volume and capacity using appropriate uniform informal units (ACMMG037)

Compare masses of objects using balance scales (ACMMG038)

Tell time to the quarter-hour, using the language of 'past' and 'to' (ACMMG039)

Name and order months and seasons (ACMMG040)

Use a calendar to identify the date and determine the number of days in each month (ACMMG041)

###### Shape

Describe and draw two-dimensional shapes, with and without digital technologies (ACMMG042)

Describe the features of three-dimensional objects (ACMMG043)

###### Location and transformation

Interpret simple maps of familiar locations and identify the relative positions of key features (ACMMG044)

Investigate the effect of one-step slides and flips with and without digital technologies (ACMMG045)

Identify and describe half and quarter turns (ACMMG046)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Identify practical activities and everyday events that involve chance. Describe outcomes as ‘likely’ or ‘unlikely’ and identify some events as ‘certain’ or ‘impossible’ (ACMSP047)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Identify a question of interest based on one categorical variable. Gather data relevant to the question (ACMSP048)

Collect, check and classify data (ACMSP049)

Create displays of data using lists, table and picture graphs and interpret them (ACMSP050)

#### Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students recognise increasing and decreasing number sequences involving 2s, 3s and 5s. They represent multiplication and division by grouping into sets. They associate collections of Australian coins with their value. Students identify the missing element in a number sequence. Students recognise the features of three-dimensional objects. They interpret simple maps of familiar locations. They explain the effects of one-step transformations. Students make sense of collected information.

Students count to and from 1000. They perform simple addition and subtraction calculations using a range of strategies. They divide collections and shapes into halves, quarters and eighths. Students order shapes and objects using informal units. They tell time to the quarter-hour and use a calendar to identify the date and the months included in seasons. They draw two-dimensional shapes. They describe outcomes for everyday events. Students collect, organise and represent data to make simple inferences.

### Year 3

#### Year 3 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes connecting number representations with number sequences, partitioning and combining numbers flexibly, representing unit fractions, using appropriate language to communicate times, and identifying environmental symmetry
• fluency includes recalling multiplication facts, using familiar metric units to order and compare objects, identifying and describing outcomes of chance experiments, interpreting maps and communicating positions
• problem-solving includes formulating and modelling authentic situations involving planning methods of data collection and representation, making models of three-dimensional objects and using number properties to continue number patterns
• reasoning includes using generalising from number properties and results of calculations, comparing angles and creating and interpreting variations in the results of data collections and data displays.

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#### Year 3 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Investigate the conditions required for a number to be odd or even and identify odd and even numbers (ACMNA051)

Recognise, model, represent and order numbers to at least 10 000 (ACMNA052)

Apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup numbers to at least 10 000 to assist calculations and solve problems (ACMNA053)

Recognise and explain the connection between addition and subtraction (ACMNA054)

Recall addition facts for single-digit numbers and related subtraction facts to develop increasingly efficient mental strategies for computation (ACMNA055)

Recall multiplication facts of two, three, five and ten and related division facts (ACMNA056)

Represent and solve problems involving multiplication using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA057)

###### Fractions and decimals

Model and represent unit fractions including 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 1/5 and their multiples to a complete whole (ACMNA058)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Represent money values in multiple ways and count the change required for simple transactions to the nearest five cents (ACMNA059)

###### Patterns and algebra

Describe, continue, and create number patterns resulting from performing addition or subtraction (ACMNA060)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Measure, order and compare objects using familiar metric units of length, mass and capacity (ACMMG061)

Tell time to the minute and investigate the relationship between units of time (ACMMG062)

###### Shape

Make models of three-dimensional objects and describe key features (ACMMG063)

###### Location and transformation

Create and interpret simple grid maps to show position and pathways (ACMMG065)

Identify symmetry in the environment (ACMMG066)

###### Geometric reasoning

Identify angles as measures of turn and compare angle sizes in everyday situations (ACMMG064)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Conduct chance experiments, identify and describe possible outcomes and recognise variation in results (ACMSP067)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Identify questions or issues for categorical variables. Identify data sources and plan methods of data collection and recording (ACMSP068)

Collect data, organise into categories and create displays using lists, tables, picture graphs and simple column graphs, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMSP069)

Interpret and compare data displays (ACMSP070)

#### Year 3 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 3, students recognise the connection between addition and subtraction and solve problems using efficient strategies for multiplication. They model and represent unit fractions. They represent money values in various ways. Students identify symmetry in the environment. They match positions on maps with given information. Students recognise angles in real situations. They interpret and compare data displays.

Students count to and from 10 000. They classify numbers as either odd or even. They recall addition and multiplication facts for single-digit numbers. Students correctly count out change from financial transactions. They continue number patterns involving addition and subtraction. Students use metric units for length, mass and capacity. They tell time to the nearest minute. Students make models of three-dimensional objects. Students conduct chance experiments and list possible outcomes. They conduct simple data investigations for categorical variables.

### Year 4

#### Year 4 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes making connections between representations of numbers, partitioning and combining numbers flexibly, extending place value to decimals, using appropriate language to communicate times and describing properties of symmetrical shapes
• fluency includes recalling multiplication tables, communicating sequences of simple fractions, using instruments to measure accurately, creating patterns with shapes and their transformations and collecting and recording data
• problem-solving includes formulating, modelling and recording authentic situations involving operations, comparing large numbers with each other, comparing time durations and using properties of numbers to continue patterns
• reasoning includes using generalising from number properties and results of calculations, deriving strategies for unfamiliar multiplication and division tasks, comparing angles, communicating information using graphical displays and evaluating the appropriateness of different displays.

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#### Year 4 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Investigate and use the properties of odd and even numbers (ACMNA071)

Recognise, represent and order numbers to at least tens of thousands (ACMNA072)

Apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup numbers to at least tens of thousands to assist calculations and solve problems (ACMNA073)

Investigate number sequences involving multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 (ACMNA074)

Recall multiplication facts up to 10 × 10 and related division facts (ACMNA075)

Develop efficient mental and written strategies and use appropriate digital technologies for multiplication and for division where there is no remainder (ACMNA076)

###### Fractions and decimals

Investigate equivalent fractions used in contexts (ACMNA077)

Count by quarters halves and thirds, including with mixed numerals. Locate and represent these fractions on a number line (ACMNA078)

Recognise that the place value system can be extended to tenths and hundredths. Make connections between fractions and decimal notation (ACMNA079)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Solve problems involving purchases and the calculation of change to the nearest five cents with and without digital technologies (ACMNA080)

###### Patterns and algebra

Explore and describe number patterns resulting from performing multiplication (ACMNA081)

Solve word problems by using number sentences involving multiplication or division where there is no remainder (ACMNA082)

Find unknown quantities in number sentences involving addition and subtraction and identify equivalent number sentences involving addition and subtraction (ACMNA083)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Use scaled instruments to measure and compare lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures (ACMMG084)

Compare objects using familiar metric units of area and volume (ACMMG290)

Convert between units of time (ACMMG085)

Use ‘am’ and ‘pm’ notation and solve simple time problems (ACMMG086)

###### Shape

Compare the areas of regular and irregular shapes by informal means (ACMMG087)

Compare and describe two dimensional shapes that result from combining and splitting common shapes, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMMG088)

###### Location and transformation

Use simple scales, legends and directions to interpret information contained in basic maps (ACMMG090)

Create symmetrical patterns, pictures and shapes with and without digital technologies (ACMMG091)

###### Geometric reasoning

Compare angles and classify them as equal to, greater than, or less than, a right angle (ACMMG089)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Describe possible everyday events and order their chances of occurring (ACMSP092)

Identify everyday events where one cannot happen if the other happens (ACMSP093)

Identify events where the chance of one will not be affected by the occurrence of the other (ACMSP094)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Select and trial methods for data collection, including survey questions and recording sheets (ACMSP095)

Construct suitable data displays, with and without the use of digital technologies, from given or collected data. Include tables, column graphs and picture graphs where one picture can represent many data values (ACMSP096)

Evaluate the effectiveness of different displays in illustrating data features including variability (ACMSP097)

#### Year 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division. They recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fraction and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students solve simple purchasing problems. They identify and explain strategies for finding unknown quantities in number sentences. They describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. They interpret information contained in maps. Students identify dependent and independent events. They describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness.

Students use the properties of odd and even numbers. They recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. Students locate familiar fractions on a number line. They continue number sequences involving multiples of single digit numbers. Students use scaled instruments to measure temperatures, lengths, shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical shapes and patterns. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They construct data displays from given or collected data.

### Year 5

#### Year 5 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes making connections between representations of numbers, using fractions to represent probabilities, comparing and ordering fractions and decimals and representing them in various ways, describing transformations and identifying line and rotational symmetry
• fluency includes choosing appropriate units of measurement for calculation of perimeter and area, using estimation to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations and using instruments to measure angles
• problem-solving includes formulating and solving authentic problems using whole numbers and measurements and creating financial plans
• reasoning includes investigating strategies to perform calculations efficiently, continuing patterns involving fractions and decimals, interpreting results of chance experiments, posing appropriate questions for data investigations and interpreting data sets.

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#### Year 5 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Identify and describe factors and multiples of whole numbers and use them to solve problems (ACMNA098)

Use estimation and rounding to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations (ACMNA099)

Solve problems involving multiplication of large numbers by one- or two-digit numbers using efficient mental, written strategies and appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA100)

Solve problems involving division by a one digit number, including those that result in a remainder (ACMNA101)

Use efficient mental and written strategies and apply appropriate digital technologies to solve problems (ACMNA291)

###### Fractions and decimals

Compare and order common unit fractions and locate and represent them on a number line (ACMNA102)

Investigate strategies to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with the same denominator (ACMNA103)

Recognise that the place value system can be extended beyond hundredths (ACMNA104)

Compare, order and represent decimals (ACMNA105)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Create simple financial plans (ACMNA106)

###### Patterns and algebra

Describe, continue and create patterns with fractions, decimals and whole numbers resulting from addition and subtraction (ACMNA107)

Find unknown quantities in number sentences involving multiplication and division and identify equivalent number sentences involving multiplication and division (ACMNA121)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Choose appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass (ACMMG108)

Calculate perimeter and area of rectangles using familiar metric units (ACMMG109)

Compare 12- and 24-hour time systems and convert between them (ACMMG110)

###### Shape

Connect three-dimensional objects with their nets and other two-dimensional representations (ACMMG111)

###### Location and transformation

Use a grid reference system to describe locations. Describe routes using landmarks and directional language (ACMMG113)

Describe translations, reflections and rotations of two-dimensional shapes. Identify line and rotational symmetries (ACMMG114)

Apply the enlargement transformation to familiar two dimensional shapes and explore the properties of the resulting image compared with the original (ACMMG115)

###### Geometric reasoning

Estimate, measure and compare angles using degrees. Construct angles using a protractor (ACMMG112)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

List outcomes of chance experiments involving equally likely outcomes and represent probabilities of those outcomes using fractions (ACMSP116)

Recognise that probabilities range from 0 to 1 (ACMSP117)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Pose questions and collect categorical or numerical data by observation or survey (ACMSP118)

Construct displays, including column graphs, dot plots and tables, appropriate for data type, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMSP119)

Describe and interpret different data sets in context (ACMSP120)

#### Year 5 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 5, students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies. They check the reasonableness of answers using estimation and rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They identify and explain strategies for finding unknown quantities in number sentences involving the four operations. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry. Students interpret different data sets.

Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on number lines. They add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. Students continue patterns by adding and subtracting fractions and decimals. They use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles. They convert between 12- and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They measure and construct different angles. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities between 0 and 1. Students pose questions to gather data, and construct data displays appropriate for the data.

### Year 6

#### Year 6 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes describing properties of different sets of numbers, using fractions and decimals to describe probabilities, representing fractions and decimals in various ways and describing connections between them, and making reasonable estimations
• fluency includes representing integers on a number line, calculating simple percentages, using brackets appropriately, converting between fractions and decimals, using operations with fractions, decimals and percentages, measuring using metric units and interpreting timetables
• problem-solving includes formulating and solving authentic problems using fractions, decimals, percentages and measurements, interpreting secondary data displays and finding the size of unknown angles
• reasoning includes explaining mental strategies for performing calculations, describing results for continuing number sequences, explaining the transformation of one shape into another and explaining why the actual results of chance experiments may differ from expected results.

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#### Year 6 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Identify and describe properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers (ACMNA122)

Select and apply efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies to solve problems involving all four operations with whole numbers (ACMNA123)

Investigate everyday situations that use integers. Locate and represent these numbers on a number line (ACMNA124)

###### Fractions and decimals

Compare fractions with related denominators and locate and represent them on a number line (ACMNA125)

Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with the same or related denominators (ACMNA126)

Find a simple fraction of a quantity where the result is a whole number, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA127)

Add and subtract decimals, with and without digital technologies, and use estimation and rounding to check the reasonableness of answers (ACMNA128)

Multiply decimals by whole numbers and perform divisions by non-zero whole numbers where the results are terminating decimals, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA129)

Multiply and divide decimals by powers of 10 (ACMNA130)

Make connections between equivalent fractions, decimals and percentages (ACMNA131)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Investigate and calculate percentage discounts of 10%, 25% and 50% on sale items, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA132)

###### Patterns and algebra

Continue and create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. Describe the rule used to create the sequence (ACMNA133)

Explore the use of brackets and order of operations to write number sentences (ACMNA134)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Connect decimal representations to the metric system (ACMMG135)

Convert between common metric units of length, mass and capacity (ACMMG136)

Solve problems involving the comparison of lengths and areas using appropriate units (ACMMG137)

Connect volume and capacity and their units of measurement (ACMMG138)

Interpret and use timetables (ACMMG139)

###### Shape

Construct simple prisms and pyramids (ACMMG140)

###### Location and transformation

Investigate combinations of translations, reflections and rotations, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMMG142)

Introduce the Cartesian coordinate system using all four quadrants (ACMMG143)

###### Geometric reasoning

Investigate, with and without digital technologies, angles on a straight line, angles at a point and vertically opposite angles. Use results to find unknown angles (ACMMG141)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Describe probabilities using fractions, decimals and percentages (ACMSP144)

Conduct chance experiments with both small and large numbers of trials using appropriate digital technologies (ACMSP145)

Compare observed frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies (ACMSP146)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Interpret and compare a range of data displays, including side-by-side column graphs for two categorical variables (ACMSP147)

Interpret secondary data presented in digital media and elsewhere (ACMSP148)

#### Year 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers. They describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. They solve problems involving all four operations with whole numbers. Students connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. They describe rules used in sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. Students connect decimal representations to the metric system and choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation. They make connections between capacity and volume. They solve problems involving length and area. They interpret timetables. Students describe combinations of transformations. They solve problems using the properties of angles. Students compare observed and expected frequencies. They interpret and compare a variety of data displays including those displays for two categorical variables. They interpret secondary data displayed in the media.

Students locate fractions and integers on a number line. They calculate a simple fraction of a quantity. They add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students calculate common percentage discounts on sale items. They write correct number sentences using brackets and order of operations. Students locate an ordered pair in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane. They construct simple prisms and pyramids. Students describe probabilities using simple fractions, decimals and percentages.

### Year 7

#### Year 7 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes describing patterns in uses of indices with whole numbers, recognising equivalences between fractions, decimals, percentages and ratios, plotting points on the Cartesian plane, identifying angles formed by a transversal crossing a pair of lines, and connecting the laws and properties of numbers to algebraic terms and expressions
• fluency includes calculating accurately with integers, representing fractions and decimals in various ways, investigating best buys, finding measures of central tendency and calculating areas of shapes and volumes of prisms
• problem-solving includes formulating and solving authentic problems using numbers and measurements, working with transformations and identifying symmetry, calculating angles and interpreting sets of data collected through chance experiments
• reasoning includes applying the number laws to calculations, applying known geometric facts to draw conclusions about shapes, applying an understanding of ratio and interpreting data displays.

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#### Year 7 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Investigate index notation and represent whole numbers as products of powers of prime numbers (ACMNA149)

Investigate and use square roots of perfect square numbers (ACMNA150)

Apply the associative, commutative and distributive laws to aid mental and written computation (ACMNA151)

Compare, order, add and subtract integers (ACMNA280)

###### Real numbers

Compare fractions using equivalence. Locate and represent positive and negative fractions and mixed numbers on a number line (ACMNA152)

Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions, including those with unrelated denominators (ACMNA153)

Multiply and divide fractions and decimals using efficient written strategies and digital technologies (ACMNA154)

Express one quantity as a fraction of another, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMNA155)

Round decimals to a specified number of decimal places (ACMNA156)

Connect fractions, decimals and percentages and carry out simple conversions (ACMNA157)

Find percentages of quantities and express one quantity as a percentage of another, with and without digital technologies. (ACMNA158)

Recognise and solve problems involving simple ratios (ACMNA173)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Investigate and calculate 'best buys', with and without digital technologies (ACMNA174)

###### Patterns and algebra

Introduce the concept of variables as a way of representing numbers using letters (ACMNA175)

Create algebraic expressions and evaluate them by substituting a given value for each variable (ACMNA176)

Extend and apply the laws and properties of arithmetic to algebraic terms and expressions (ACMNA177)

###### Linear and non-linear relationships

Given coordinates, plot points on the Cartesian plane, and find coordinates for a given point (ACMNA178)

Solve simple linear equations (ACMNA179)

Investigate, interpret and analyse graphs from authentic data (ACMNA180)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Establish the formulas for areas of rectangles, triangles and parallelograms, and use these in problem-solving (ACMMG159)

Calculate volumes of rectangular prisms (ACMMG160)

###### Shape

Draw different views of prisms and solids formed from combinations of prisms (ACMMG161)

###### Location and transformation

Describe translations, reflections in an axis and rotations of multiples of 90° on the Cartesian plane using coordinates. Identify line and rotational symmetries (ACMMG181)

###### Geometric reasoning

Identify corresponding, alternate and co-interior angles when two straight lines are crossed by a transversal (ACMMG163)

Investigate conditions for two lines to be parallel and solve simple numerical problems using reasoning (ACMMG164)

Demonstrate that the angle sum of a triangle is 180° and use this to find the angle sum of a quadrilateral (ACMMG166)

Classify triangles according to their side and angle properties and describe quadrilaterals (ACMMG165)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Construct sample spaces for single-step experiments with equally likely outcomes (ACMSP167)

Assign probabilities to the outcomes of events and determine probabilities for events (ACMSP168)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Identify and investigate issues involving numerical data collected from primary and secondary sources (ACMSP169)

Construct and compare a range of data displays including stem-and-leaf plots and dot plots (ACMSP170)

Calculate mean, median, mode and range for sets of data. Interpret these statistics in the context of data (ACMSP171)

Describe and interpret data displays using median, mean and range (ACMSP172)

#### Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students solve problems involving the comparison, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving percentages and all four operations with fractions and decimals. They compare the cost of items to make financial decisions. Students represent numbers using variables. They connect the laws and properties for numbers to algebra. They interpret simple linear representations and model authentic information. Students describe different views of three-dimensional objects. They represent transformations in the Cartesian plane. They solve simple numerical problems involving angles formed by a transversal crossing two lines. Students identify issues involving the collection of continuous data. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays.

Students use fractions, decimals and percentages, and their equivalences. They express one quantity as a fraction or percentage of another. Students solve simple linear equations and evaluate algebraic expressions after numerical substitution. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane. Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles and calculate volumes of rectangular prisms. Students classify triangles and quadrilaterals. They name the types of angles formed by a transversal crossing parallel line. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities to those outcomes. They calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots.

### Year 8

#### Year 8 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes describing patterns involving indices and recurring decimals, identifying commonalities between operations with algebra and arithmetic, connecting rules for linear relations with their graphs, explaining the purpose of statistical measures and explaining measurements of perimeter and area
• fluency includes calculating accurately with simple decimals, indices and integers; recognising equivalence of common decimals and fractions including recurring decimals; factorising and simplifying basic algebraic expressions and evaluating perimeters and areas of common shapes and volumes of three-dimensional objects
• problem-solving includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving ratios, profit and loss, areas and perimeters of common shapes and using two-way tables and Venn diagrams to calculate probabilities
• reasoning includes justifying the result of a calculation or estimation as reasonable, deriving probability from its complement, using congruence to deduce properties of triangles, finding estimates of means and proportions of populations.

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#### Year 8 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Number and place value

Use index notation with numbers to establish the index laws with positive integral indices and the zero index (ACMNA182)

Carry out the four operations with rational numbers and integers, using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA183)

###### Real numbers

Investigate terminating and recurring decimals (ACMNA184)

Investigate the concept of irrational numbers, including π (ACMNA186)

Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases and decreases, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA187)

Solve a range of problems involving rates and ratios, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA188)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Solve problems involving profit and loss, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA189)

###### Patterns and algebra

Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions (ACMNA190)

Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors (ACMNA191)

Simplify algebraic expressions involving the four operations (ACMNA192)

###### Linear and non-linear relationships

Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMNA193)

Solve linear equations using algebraic and graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution (ACMNA194)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume and convert from one unit to another (ACMMG195)

Find perimeters and areas of parallelograms, trapeziums, rhombuses and kites (ACMMG196)

Investigate the relationship between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius and diameter. Use formulas to solve problems involving circumference and area (ACMMG197)

Develop formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume (ACMMG198)

Solve problems involving duration, including using 12- and 24-hour time within a single time zone (ACMMG199)

###### Geometric reasoning

Define congruence of plane shapes using transformations (ACMMG200)

Develop the conditions for congruence of triangles (ACMMG201)

Establish properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles and angle properties, and solve related numerical problems using reasoning (ACMMG202)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems (ACMSP204)

Describe events using language of 'at least', exclusive 'or' (A or B but not both), inclusive 'or' (A or B or both) and 'and'. (ACMSP205)

Represent events in two-way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems (ACMSP292)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Investigate techniques for collecting data, including census, sampling and observation (ACMSP284)

Explore the practicalities and implications of obtaining data through sampling using a variety of investigative processes (ACMSP206)

Explore the variation of means and proportions of random samples drawn from the same population (ACMSP293)

Investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers, on the mean and median (ACMSP207)

#### Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students solve everyday problems involving rates, ratios and percentages. They describe index laws and apply them to whole numbers. They describe rational and irrational numbers. Students solve problems involving profit and loss. They make connections between expanding and factorising algebraic expressions. Students solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications. They identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. Students model authentic situations with two-way tables and Venn diagrams. They choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They explain issues related to the collection of data and the effect of outliers on means and medians in that data.

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to carry out the four operations with integers. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions. They solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane. Students convert between units of measurement for area and volume. They perform calculations to determine perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. They name the features of circles and calculate the areas and circumferences of circles. Students determine the probabilities of complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

### Year 9

#### Year 9 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes describing the relationship between graphs and equations, simplifying a range of algebraic expressions and explaining the use of relative frequencies to estimate probabilities and of the trigonometric ratios for right-angle triangles
• fluency includes applying the index laws to expressions with integer indices, expressing numbers in scientific notation, listing outcomes for experiments, developing familiarity with calculations involving the Cartesian plane and calculating areas of shapes and surface areas of prisms
• problem-solving includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving surface areas and volumes of right prisms, applying ratio and scale factors to similar figures, solving problems involving right-angle trigonometry and collecting data from secondary sources to investigate an issue
• reasoning includes following mathematical arguments, evaluating media reports and using statistical knowledge to clarify situations, developing strategies in investigating similarity and sketching linear graphs.

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#### Year 9 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Real numbers

Solve problems involving direct proportion. Explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to simple rate problems (ACMNA208)

Apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices (ACMNA209)

Express numbers in scientific notation (ACMNA210)

###### Money and financial mathematics

Solve problems involving simple interest (ACMNA211)

###### Patterns and algebra

Extend and apply the index laws to variables, using positive integer indices and the zero index (ACMNA212)

Apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions, including binomials, and collect like terms where appropriate (ACMNA213)

###### Linear and non-linear relationships

Find the distance between two points located on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing software (ACMNA214)

Find the midpoint and gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing software (ACMNA294)

Sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points and solve linear equations (ACMNA215)

Graph simple non-linear relations with and without the use of digital technologies and solve simple related equations (ACMNA296)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Calculate areas of composite shapes (ACMMG216)

Calculate the surface area and volume of cylinders and solve related problems (ACMMG217)

Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of right prisms (ACMMG218)

Investigate very small and very large time scales and intervals (ACMMG219)

###### Geometric reasoning

Use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity and develop the conditions for triangles to be similar (ACMMG220)

Solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures (ACMMG221)

###### Pythagoras and trigonometry

Investigate Pythagoras’ Theorem and its application to solving simple problems involving right angled triangles (ACMMG222)

Use similarity to investigate the constancy of the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for a given angle in right-angled triangles (ACMMG223)

Apply trigonometry to solve right-angled triangle problems (ACMMG224)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

List all outcomes for two-step chance experiments, both with and without replacement using tree diagrams or arrays. Assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities for events (ACMSP225)

Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving 'and' or 'or' (ACMSP226)

Investigate reports of surveys in digital media and elsewhere for information on how data were obtained to estimate population means and medians (ACMSP227)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Identify everyday questions and issues involving at least one numerical and at least one categorical variable, and collect data directly and from secondary sources (ACMSP228)

Construct back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots and histograms and describe data, using terms including ‘skewed’, ‘symmetric’ and ‘bi modal’ (ACMSP282)

Compare data displays using mean, median and range to describe and interpret numerical data sets in terms of location (centre) and spread (ACMSP283)

#### Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students solve problems involving simple interest. They interpret ratio and scale factors in similar figures. Students explain similarity of triangles. They recognise the connections between similarity and the trigonometric ratios. Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources. They make sense of the position of the mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays to describe and interpret data.

Students apply the index laws to numbers and express numbers in scientific notation. They expand binomial expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment. They sketch linear and non-linear relations. Students calculate areas of shapes and the volume and surface area of right prisms and cylinders. They use Pythagoras’ Theorem and trigonometry to find unknown sides of right-angled triangles. Students calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities, list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots.

### Year 10

#### Year 10 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

• understanding includes applying the four operations to algebraic fractions, finding unknowns in formulas after substitution, making the connection between equations of relations and their graphs, comparing simple and compound interest in financial contexts and determining probabilities of two- and three-step experiments
• fluency includes factorising and expanding algebraic expressions, using a range of strategies to solve equations and using calculations to investigate the shape of data sets
• problem-solving includes calculating the surface area and volume of a diverse range of prisms to solve practical problems, finding unknown lengths and angles using applications of trigonometry, using algebraic and graphical techniques to find solutions to simultaneous equations and inequalities and investigating independence of events
• reasoning includes formulating geometric proofs involving congruence and similarity, interpreting and evaluating media statements and interpreting and comparing data sets.

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#### Year 10 Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Money and financial mathematics

Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA229)

###### Patterns and algebra

Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (ACMNA230)

Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (ACMNA231)

Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (ACMNA232)

Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (ACMNA233)

Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown (ACMNA234)

###### Linear and non-linear relationships

Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (ACMNA235)

Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (ACMNA236)

Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques, including using digital technology (ACMNA237)

Solve problems involving parallel and perpendicular lines (ACMNA238)

Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate (ACMNA239)

Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (ACMNA240)

Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (ACMNA241)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (ACMMG242)

###### Geometric reasoning

Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (ACMMG243)

Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes (ACMMG244)

###### Pythagoras and trigonometry

Solve right-angled triangle problems including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression (ACMMG245)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events. Investigate the concept of independence (ACMSP246)

Use the language of ‘if ....then, ‘given’, ‘of’, ‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language (ACMSP247)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Determine quartiles and interquartile range (ACMSP248)

Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (ACMSP249)

Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots (ACMSP250)

Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (ACMSP251)

Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time (ACMSP252)

Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data (ACMSP253)

#### Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities. They make the connections between algebraic and graphical representations of relations. Students solve surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They recognise the relationships between parallel and perpendicular lines. Students apply deductive reasoning to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes. They compare data sets by referring to the shapes of the various data displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time. Students describe statistical relationships between two continuous variables. They evaluate statistical reports.

Students expand binomial expressions and factorise monic quadratic expressions. They find unknown values after substitution into formulas. They perform the four operations with simple algebraic fractions. Students solve simple quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous equations. They use triangle and angle properties to prove congruence and similarity. Students use trigonometry to calculate unknown angles in right-angled triangles. Students list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments and assign probabilities for these experiments. They calculate quartiles and inter-quartile ranges.

### Year 10A

#### Year 10A Content Descriptions

##### Number and Algebra
###### Real numbers

Define rational and irrational numbers and perform operations with surds and fractional indices (ACMNA264)

Use the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms (ACMNA265)

###### Patterns and algebra

Investigate the concept of a polynomial and apply the factor and remainder theorems to solve problems (ACMNA266)

###### Linear and non-linear relationships

Describe, interpret and sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions and their transformations (ACMNA267)

Solve simple exponential equations (ACMNA270)

Apply understanding of polynomials to sketch a range of curves and describe the features of these curves from their equation (ACMNA268)

Factorise monic and non-monic quadratic expressions and solve a wide range of quadratic equations derived from a variety of contexts (ACMNA269)

##### Measurement and Geometry
###### Using units of measurement

Solve problems involving surface area and volume of right pyramids, right cones, spheres and related composite solids (ACMMG271)

###### Geometric reasoning

Prove and apply angle and chord properties of circles (ACMMG272)

###### Pythagoras and trigonometry

Establish the sine, cosine and area rules for any triangle and solve related problems (ACMMG273)

Use the unit circle to define trigonometric functions, and graph them with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMMG274)

Solve simple trigonometric equations (ACMMG275)

Apply Pythagoras’ Theorem and trigonometry to solving three-dimensional problems in right-angled triangles (ACMMG276)

##### Statistics and Probability
###### Chance

Investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation (ACMSP277)

###### Data representation and interpretation

Calculate and interpret the mean and standard deviation of data and use these to compare data sets (ACMSP278)

Use information technologies to investigate bivariate numerical data sets. Where appropriate use a straight line to describe the relationship allowing for variation (ACMSP279)